Yo-yo dieting, also known as weight cycling, is the pattern of losing and regaining weight over and over again so your weight is constantly fluctuating.
While people generally think of weight loss as healthy, yo-yo dieting can actually damage your health, leading to heart disease, high blood pressure, and higher BMI over time.
Luckily, there are ways on how you can healthily stop yo-yo dieting. But first, let us discuss what is it and why it’s bad for you.
What is Yo-Yo Dieting?
Yo-yo dieting or weight cycling was the term invented by Kelly Brownell to describe the cyclical weight loss and weight gain in yo-yo dieting. This resembles the up-down movement of a yo-yo (1).
Dieters are initially successful in pursuing weight loss in this process. However, maintaining the loss for a longer period of time is the problem. Soon, they’ll start to gain weight again, and the cycle continues.
Yo-yo dieting is very common. It is not just limited to the overweight or obese as many grownups, adolescents, and even children with normal or underweight body mass indexes diet. This is because they feel they are overweight or society, social media, family, and friends pressurize them (2).
Survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination shows that the number of individuals with normal weight who have made efforts to lose weight through dieting and other means has increased between the middle 1990s and 2003 to 2008 (2).
About 13.5% of underweight women have at one point or the other tried to control their weight.
Additionally, because there is a need to adhere to beauty standards or weight categories by athletes in some sports, they may yo-yo diet at certain seasons to achieve that. Also, young adolescents are found to experience weight cycling because they start participating in some of these sports at a tender age (2).
About 30% of women and 10% of men have tried losing weight through yo-yo dieting and it is a common method. (2).
About 80% of people who intentionally lose up to 10% or more of their total body weight will gain it back within one year and weight cycling affects the health of humans especially morbidity and mortality (3).
Why is Yo-Yo Dieting Bad For You?
There can be several reasons for yo-yo dieting, but most of the time, it includes embarkation on a very extreme hypocaloric diet.
At first, one may think and feel that he or she can reduce weight by strictly rejecting food. Over time, however, the limits imposed by such strict diets may cause depression and fatigue, which makes it impossible to maintain.
Sooner or later, the dieter will revert to his or her old eating habits, now with the added disappointment of failing to lose weight. This can cause a person to eat more than they would have before dieting.
1. It will increase your appetite causing more weight gain in the future
Dieting and fat loss can decrease the levels of leptin. This hormone usually helps you feel full.
Under normal circumstances, fat stores release leptin into the bloodstream to tell your body that energy stores are more than enough and available so you can start eating less.
But as you lose fat, leptin level decreases; hence appetite is increased. This reaction is meant to restore your depleted energy stores.
Also, there is a loss of muscle mass during dieting and this causes your body to conserve energy.
Those who use a short-term diet to reduce weight are more likely to regain 30-65% of that lost weight within a year.
More so, 1 out of 3 people gains more weight than before they dieted.
This gain completes the “up” phase of yo-yo dieting and may prompt people to start another cycle of weight loss.
2. It increases your body fat percentage
According to some studies, yo-yo dieting can cause an increase in body fat percentage.
With this type of diet, fat can be regained quickly as compared to muscle mass. This can increase your body fat percentage over several cycles.
One review revealed that 11 out of 19 studies found a link between a history of yo-yo dieting and higher fat belly and body fat percentage (4).
This is more pronounced after doing a weight loss diet as compared to a more subtle and sustainable lifestyle change and could be responsible for the yo-yo effect.
3. It causes muscle loss
When you are on a diet, your body loses muscle mass along with the fats.
And since fat is regained more easily as compared to muscles after weight loss, this can cause you to lose more muscle mass over time, which may also decrease your physical strength.
Exercise including strength training can counteract these effects. Exercise signals the body to grow muscles while the rest of the body is trimming down.
When on a diet, the body’s protein requirement is likewise increased. Taking good amounts of protein can help reduce muscle loss.
One study showed that those who took protein supplements while losing weight have lost less muscle mass (5).
4. It may lead to fatty liver
If there is too much fat stored inside the liver cells, you can suffer from fatty liver.
Obesity is one of the risk factors and gaining weight through several cycles of yo-yo dieting can put you at risk.
One study in mice proved that repeated cycles of weight gain and weight loss can cause fatty liver (6).
Another study revealed that liver damage can develop among weight-cycling mice (7).
5. You’ll be more at risk for diabetes
Yo-yo dieting is being linked to type 2 diabetes.
In a study involving 15 adults, results showed that participants have regained weight, mostly belly fat, after 28 days of weight loss (8).
Belly fat is more likely to cause diabetes as compared to other fat stored in other body parts.
One study even showed increased insulin levels among rats that went through a year of weight cycling (9). This could be an early sign of diabetes.
6. It predisposes you for heart disease
Weight cycling is now associated with coronary heart diseases.
According to one study involving over 9000 adults, there can be an increased risk of heart disease depending on how much weight you have lost and regained during the process of dieting. The greater the numbers, the greater the risk (10).
7. It causes frustration
It can really be frustrating to see regaining of weight even after strictly dieting for the past few weeks or months. This happens in the rebound phase of yo-yo dieting.
Actually, adults who have engaged in yo-yo dieting report feeling unsatisfied or disappointed with their health and lives.
There’s also a report about less self-efficacy regarding one’s body and health (11).
You may have tried other diets that did not help you achieve the long-term results you wanted. And if yo-yo dieting is one of them, it is simply a reason to stop doing it and try something else.
8. It may promote muscle loss
During weight loss diets, the body loses muscle mass as well as body fat.
Because fat is regained more easily than muscle after weight loss, this can lead to more loss of muscle over time.
Muscle loss during dieting also leads to decreased physical strength.
These effects can be reduced with exercise, including strength training. Exercising signals the body to grow muscle, even when the rest of the body is slimming down.
During weight loss, the body’s dietary protein requirement also increases. Eating enough quality protein sources can help reduce muscle loss.
One study showed that when 114 adults took protein supplements as they were losing weight, they lost less muscle mass (12).
Yo-Yo Dieting Versus Binge Eating Disorder
Yo-yo dieting has been linked to binge eating disorder, a condition where people eat abnormally large amounts of food in one sitting and feel unable to control their behavior.
In fact, a 2013 study found that people who go through multiple dieting programs are more likely to suffer from binge eating disorder. However, it is unclear whether yo-yo dieting actually causes binge-eating behaviors.
If you struggle with binge eating disorder or another eating disorder like anorexia, and you want to stop the cycle of yo-yo dieting, you will need to take a different approach.
With any eating disorder, it is not about the food, rather underlying mental health concerns.
Check out the tips below on you to stop yo-yo dieting.
How Can You Stop Yo-Yo Dieting?
1. Forget About the Concept of Perpetual Dieting
A lot of people that go into a diet do not think of long-term goals. They follow strict rules to reduce weight and usually return to their old habits as soon as they have achieved their preferred weight.
However, there is no temporary and quick solution to losing weight. If you are overweight, it is most likely because of your lifestyle and eating habits.
Know the pitfalls of your daily food choices so you can start ditching those old habits to reduce weight, long-term.
The best diet is not a diet, but a lifestyle with some guidelines that are achievable and easy to maintain.
2. Load Up on Berries
Start boosting your berry intake ASAP. Whether you’re a fan of raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, or blackberries, popping a handful of these fresh fruits into your mouth means packing on polyphenols. According to research by Texas Woman’s University, these chemicals can help keep the fat off. Believe it or not, fat-cell formation in mice decreased by up to 73 percent when they were fed three servings of berries a day, so buy a bunch next time you hit the grocery store.
3. Go Greek
If you’re not gaga for Greek yogurt yet, it’s time you get with it. Each cup of the good stuff is low-cal and has much higher levels of protein than fat, as well as a lot less sugar than the flavored low-fat varieties in your fridge. And while we get that the sour taste isn’t everyone’s favorite, at least in the beginning, there’s a way around that. Dump in a handful of berries, or nuts, or both, and you’ll love spooning out this tasty, satiating treat. Incorporate this into your breakfast routine and those pesky pounds won’t stand a chance.
4. Say Yes to Cinnamon
Remember the polyphenols in berries? They run rampant in cinnamon as well, so feel free to spice up your morning cup of oatmeal or yogurt with a sprinkle of the stuff. Not only did a study in Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics show this to decrease belly fat in animals, but the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published studies claiming that a teaspoon atop a carb-heavy meal could stabilize blood sugar.
Most of us have a sedentary lifestyle. We often spend more time sitting while at work or even in school. We also entertain ourselves by watching TV in a sitting or lying position at night. These practices have a negative impact on our body.
A very little exercise and poor sleep can cause obesity.
Trying going out more and exercising regularly. Make easy movements every day. This is very important to help your body maintain a good, healthy weight.
6. Reward Yourself
Reward yourself for not munching on junk foods and for doing small exercises on a regular basis.
How? If you have extra money, go watch a movie or shop! You can also gas up and drive out of the city for a weekend getaway.
You can get very motivated to change your old habits for this kind of reward.
7. Avoid Stress and Sleep More
Stress and sleep deprivation can really cause you to eat more as they will really reduce the motivation you have for dieting. Continue breaking your diet for a couple of days, and you’ll get caught up in a yo-yo diet. Moreover, they can also result in the slowing down of your metabolism, which really affects the weight-loss that you’re trying to achieve. They can also make your exercise go in waste by reducing its impact to a great extent. It is necessary to get rid of such unhealthy practices for you to actually benefit from a diet.
We can’t discuss diet without mentioning the significance of drinking water. The reason for this is that drinking water throughout the day and in-between meals can burn fat, make you feel fuller and help with digestion.
According to some research, weight loss can be achieved by drinking water before taking your meals. This way of weight loss can really help people who experience the yo-yo effect, as it doesn’t require anything and also has a lot of benefits.
9. Drink Less
Alcohol has also proved to affect your diet plan negatively. By consuming alcohol, one is at a great disadvantage as it provokes you to eat more, makes you lose control of yourself, and also has calories. Although it has a negative impact on your diet, it is not necessary to leave it either. If you’re really fond of drinking, you can just limit the amount of alcohol you consume.
10. Ask for Support and Help
Ask help from your family to set and adopt a healthy eating plan that is right for everyone so you don’t have to go through alone and to avoid temptation.
If they cannot join you, get professional help from a dietitian or a doctor.
Research suggests that solo dieters tend to give up easily. Support is very important.
11. Keep A Journal
Focus on what you eat and take relevant actions. It is often the case with many people that they subconsciously eat a lot of stuff without thinking and don’t recall what they ate throughout the day. The best practice is to keep a notebook with yourself in which you note all the things you ate during the day. If you had more than you were supposed to, try reducing the diet a bit for tomorrow; if you ate less, you could give yourself a small treat. One should note all the things that they had on that day before sleeping at night. The next morning, you should have a look at the journal, so you can make relevant changes to your diet for that day. By making this a habit, you will have fewer chances of getting stuck in a yo-yo cycle.
12. Keep it Consistent
Everyone deserves to treat themselves once in a while, but that doesn’t mean you should be indulging in cheesecake every Saturday night or syrup-laden French toast every Sunday morning. According to a study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the majority of people who lose weight and keep it off stick to a consistent diet whether it’s a weekend or a weekday. That means pushing back on peer pressure when you’re out to dinner with friends and looking out for protein-rich, low-fat options on the Sunday brunch menu. Calories don’t take the weekend off and neither should you!
While weight loss can be good for your health if you are overweight or obese, going on a crash diet is unlikely to change your weight over time, and may actually make you gain more fat. To create a lasting weight change, take a gradual approach, making realistic lifestyle changes.
Good news is, it is never too late to break that viscous cycle of yo-yo dieting and avoid its adverse effects on your body! By knowing and understanding the tips mentioned above, you can start your way to healthy living anytime you want!